Thursday, September 25, 2008

Chapter 5 & 6 - Week 8

Chapter 5 & 6 Questions

1. Describe the three network applications that we discussed in this section and the tools and technologies that support each one.

  1. Portal is a Web-based, personalized gateway to information and knowledge that provides relevant information from different IT systems and the Internet using advanced search and indexing techniques.

  2. Communication

  3. Collaboration refers efforts by two or more entities who work together to accomplish certain tasks.

2. What are the business conditions that are leading to the increased importance of videoconferencing?

Video Conferencing allows users in one location to view and communicate with users in another location. Business are increasing the use of video conferencing as it allows users to continue to do business without traveling domestically or internationally. It reduces time, cost and allows the business to work to be completed fast and efficiently.

Section 5.21. Describe the underlying technologies, applications and types of Web sites that comprise Web 2.0.

Web 2.o is a loose collection of information technologies and applications and of the websites that use them.
The technologies, applications and types of web sites thaqt comprise Web 2.0 include:Ajax: is a web development technique that allows web pages to quickly reload new dataTagging: using keywords to describe a piece of web‐related content such as an article, video, image or blogWikis: a website which anyone can post material, and even edit add or make changes to material.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS): a technology that allows users to receive the customised information when they want it.

2. Describe the function of Web services.

Web servers are applications that are delivered over the web that users can select and combine through any device e.g. Google.

3. Describe the function of service-oriented architectures.

Service-oriented architectures (SOA) is an IT architecture that makes it possible to construct business applications using web servers. SOA can be reused within the organization in other applications.

Section 6.1 1. Define e-commerce and distinguish it from e-business.

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is the buying, selling, transferring orexchanging of products, services or information by means of computer networks, such as the Internet.E-business is a broader definition ofe-commerce, including buying and selling of goods and services, and also servicing customers, collaborating with partners, conducting e-learning and conducting electronic transactions within an organization.

2. Distinguish among B2C, B2B, C2C and B2E electronic commerce.

Business-to-consumer (B2C): the sellers are organizations and the buyers are individuals.Business-to-business (B2B): both the sellers and buyers are business organizations. B2B represents the vast majority of e-commerce.Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): an individual sells products or services to other individuals.Business-to-employee (B2E): An organization uses e-commerce internally to provide information and services to its employees. Companies allow employees to manage their benefits, take training classes electronically; buy discounted insurance, travel packages, and event tickets.

3. List some benefits and limitations of e-commerce.

Allows producers to sell there products 24/7 in the national and international markets with lower costs. Therefore consumers also benefit as they have access to a wide range of goods and services 24/7 and are able to access the web sites easily at home in there own time.

Section 6.2 1. List the major issues relating to e-tailing. E-tailing aka e-retailing is the direct sale of products and services through store fronts or electronic malls.

The 2 main issues relating to e-tailing are channel conflict and order fulfillment.Channel conflict is the alienation of existing distributors when a company decides to sell to customers online. Therefore some people may not have access to computers, internet etc so are not able to view or purchase the good.Order fulfillment is quickly performing tasks so as the good is delivered to the customer quickly and so money can be collected. The issue here is unreliable suppliers or customers which may cause time and money delays.

2. What are spamming, permission marketing and viral marketing?

Spamming is indiscriminate distribution of e-mail with out the user’s permission.Permission marketing is a method of marketing that business use that asks consumers permission to voluntarily accept online advertising and promotional emails.Viral Marketing is online word of mouth marketing.

Section 6.4 1. List the various electronic payment mechanisms.

BPay and Paypal are the 2 most widely payment mechanisms online.
But you can also pay with EFTPOS(card)


2. What are micropayments?

Very small payments over the internet

Section 6.5 1. List some ethical issues in EC.

-Privacy Violations
-Transaction Security Breaches
-Illegal Activities

2. List the major legal issues of EC.

-Privacy Violations
-Transaction Security Breaches
-Illegal Activities

Tuesday, September 23, 2008

Tech Guide 4 - Week 7

Tech Guide 4 Questions

1. Compare and contrast the main wired communications channels ? (Ethernet & Fibre Optic)

There are three main types of cables including Twisted-pair wire which is the most common form of wire cable main because it is inexpensive, easy to work with and unobtrusive, but it is slow as it has a low bandwidth and is subject to interfenance. Coaxial Cable is just insulated copper wire that is used oposed to twiseted-pair wire as it has a higher bandwidth and is less susceptible to electreical interferance, but it is relatively expense and inflexible and also difficult to work with when compared to twiseted-pair wire. Fiber Optic Cables consist of thousands of small, thin glass filaments that send information via light pulses. It is prefered as it is smaller and lighter then traditional cables and has a very high bandwidth, but it needs amplifiers every few kilometers to increase the signal strength and it can be expensive when alot is used.

2. Describe the two technologies that enable users to send high-volume data over any network. (ISDN & ADSL)

Integrated Services Digital Network(ISDN) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines(ADSL) enable users to send high0volume data over any network. ISDN is an old and outdated technology that uses telephone lines whereas ADSL sends digitial signals though existing phonelines allowing the phone to be in use when someone is using the internet.

3. What are the main business reasons for using networks?

The main business reasons for using netoworks include:

  1. It connects all the computers in a business via commucations media allowing data to be transmitted to all the users in the business simultanoioulsy

  2. Allows all the users to access all the information that is stored on the network instead of cluttering up the users on PC.

  3. It also alows flexibility as the business can adapt to rapidly changing business conditions.

  4. Networks are a critical link between the business and its customers.

4. What is the difference between LANs and WANs?

A LAN is a local area network that conects devices in a limited geographical location.

A WAN is a wide are network which allows users to transmit and receive data over large geographic locations.

5. What is a network protocol?

Network protocol is a set of procedure and rules that govern the transmission of information across a network.

6. Describe TCP/IP protocol.

TCP/IP protocol is the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol which is the protocol of the internet. It managers the movement, sequence and aknowledges the receivement of packages sent across the net.

7. Describe the various ways that you can connect to the Internet?

You can connect to the internet via LANs, WANs, ADSL, Dialup, and broadband

8. Describe the parts of an Internet address.

Protocal - Domain Name - Webpage

9.What are the roles of browsers?

Browsers are software applications through which users primarily access the web and allows users to search the entire web for data and information relevant to their search.

10.Describe the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web?

The internet is a massive network that globally connects computer networks quickly, inexpensively and effortlessly. Where as the World Wide Web (WWW) is a system of universal acceptance standards for storing, receiving, formatting and displaying information using various functions on the internet.

Chapter 4 - Week 6

Chapter 4 Questions

1. What are some of the difficulties in managing data?

Data is very hard to manage is it is processed in many different stages. Some of the difficulties in manging data include:

  • With an increase of time comes an increase in data and since a lot of historical data is kept, over time the amount just builds up making it harder to manage and sort through.
  • Data is constantly being developed and updated and every time this occurs you need to upgrade what you have.
  • Data security is hard to set up especially for large companies, but can be broken into by hackers and new data security needs to be updated every year,
  • Data comes from all over the place, be it both externally ( WWW or Reports) or internally (business data bases) and all this data needs to be sorted as to allow it to be easily accessed for other to use.

2. What are the various sources for data?

The main 3 sources of data include

  1. Internal Data be in corporate databases accessed via the intranet
  2. Personal Sources such as opinions and experiences
  3. External Data such as data from the WWW
3. What is a primary key and a secondary key?

A Primary key is the identifier field or attribute that uniquely identifies a record.

A Secondary key is an identifier or attribute that has some but not all of the identifying information.

4. What is an entity and a relationship?

An Entity is a person, place, thing or event about which information is maintained in a record or file

A Relationship is the linking of tables in order to conduct searches of linking columns and rows of data

5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of relational databases?

A Relational database is a database which contains all the records and attributes of entities allowing the user to perform searches via the links between all the tables' rows and columns in the data base.

Advantages include:
-Allows the user to access large amounts of information very quickly and accurately
-Easy to operate and use a database such as ACCESS
-The use of the primary key gives the user great flexibility in the variety of queries made in the database.

Disadvantages include:
-Hard to setup and manage
-If one word is spelt incorrectly the whole database can be out of tune
-If you are new to using the database you may struggle with locating data that you need without the knowledge of using the primary or secondary key.

6. What is knowledge management?

Knowledge management helps with the organisation and manipulation of important knowledge that is part of the organisations memory. This helps the knowledge to be easily exchanged and have the ability to grow.

7. What is the difference between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge?

Tacit Knowledge is based on experience , know how, trade secrets and understanding of certain tasks or subjects It is generally slow, imprecise and costly to transfer and highly personnel. How a certain customer reacts to certain sales people is something that is not typically recorded and is an example of Tacit knowledge that is passed on to others verbally.

Explicit Knowledge is more rational, technical and objective thinking, it is mealy knowledge that has been documented. Inn organisations this can be reports, products, strategies and goals. A description on how to do a tax return is an example of Explicit knowledge as it is a documented form of information.

Tuesday, September 2, 2008

Chapter 3 - Week 5

Chapter 3 Questions

1. Provide an IT example that relates to the ethical issues for the ideas of privacy, accuracy, property, and accessibility.

-Privacy issues such as collecting, storing and disseminating information about otherds.
-Accuracy issues which involves the authenticity and accuracy of info that is being collated
-Property issues involving ownershhip of information
-Accessibility issues which involoves the of who should have access to certain information and if they need to pay to use it.

2. What are the 5 general types of IT threats? Provide an example for each one
-Unintentional acts such as human error or carelessness, eg not saving a document in the correct location and getting it lost

-Natural Disasters- Acts of God which are unavoidable such as floods and earthquakes, eg lighting storm blows up powergrid causing a city to lose power.
-Technical Failures- Problems with both software and hardware that could lead from corrupt software or malfunctioning hardware eg-crashing computer
-Management failures- Lack of interest in peoples efforts or lack of funding- eg low level and outdate software still being used.
-Deliberate Acts-Committed by insiders of an organisation who deliberakty try to destroy or vandalise a companys software or hardware.

3. Describe/discuss three types of software attack and a problem that may result from them
  • Virus-Computer code that performs malicious and hurtful actions to a computer.
  • Worm-Again it is computer code that is designed to perform viscious attacks to a computer like a virus but also replicate and spread itself to other computers
  • Trogan Horse-Software that hides in computer programs and reveal designed behavour only when activated.-eg spread spam

    4. Describe the four major types of security controls in relation to protecting information systems.

    Four controls include:
  • Physical controls which prevent unauthorised individuals from gaining access to a company such as walls and gates.
  • Access Contorls restrict unauthorised users from using any information resources in a company involving both authorisation(determines actionsm rights and prigalvages of person) and authentication(determines identity of person)
  • Communication controls wuch as firewalls and encryption to secure the movement of data transfer.
  • Application controls which are security counter measures that protect specific applications.

    5. What is information system auditing?

    It is an examination of the controls within an information technology infrastructure of a company.

    6. What is the difference between authentication and authorization and why are they important to e-Commerce/give an example of their relevance to e-Commerce.

    Authorisation- determines actions, rights and prigalvages of person and authenticationdetermines identity of person by passwords and thumb scans.
  • They are important as they help protect our computers and information from others who dont have access to use it.